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Arthritis and Indiana:
Our State's Burden
The U.S. Census estimates Indiana’s population at 6,271,973 on July 1, 2005, which represents an increase of three percent over the 2000 census. Of these 6 million residents, 28.3 percent were under 20 years of age, 34.7 percent were 20-44 years old, 24.5 percent were 45-64 years old, and 12.4 percent were 65 and older. The median age is 37.3 versus 36.5 in 2000. 19
Indiana’s Population by Age Category (US Census 2005)
In 2005, 12.2 percent of Hoosiers were living below poverty level, compared to 9.5% in 2000. Household income levels across the state were 14.48 percent below $15,000, 25.18 percent between $15,000 and $34,999, 16.35 percent between $35,000 and $49,999, 20.41 percent between $50,000 and $74,999, and 23.57 percent were $75,000 or higher.20
Indiana’s Household Income by Category
Slightly over one fifth of Hoosiers (21.1%) live in Indiana’s five largest cities: Evansville (115,918), Ft. Wayne (223,341), Gary (98,715), Indianapolis (784,118), and South Bend (105,262). Over 27 percent (27.42) of the population lived in Marion County and surrounding “donut” counties in 2005 compared to 26.43 percent in 2000.21
The state is becoming more racially diverse, with residents’ self-reported race listed as 86.1 percent white, 8.6 percent African American, 1.2 percent Asian, 1.5 percent more than one race, and 0.2 percent American Indian/Alaska Native. Slightly more than four percent (4.6) of the state’s residents identified themselves as Hispanic, up from 3.5 percent in 2000, a 32 percent increase. Counties with the highest populations of Hispanics include Lake (13.5 percent), Elkhart (11.9 percent), Clinton (10.6 percent), Cass (9.4 percent), and Noble (8.9 percent).22
Half of the state’s 92 counties have been partially or entirely designated by the federal government as Medically Underserved Areas (MUA) or Medically Underserved Populations (MUP). The MUA and MUP designations indicate that a geographic area (usually a county or collection of townships or census tracts) or a specific population needs additional primary health care services. Factors such as the availability of health professional resources within a 30-minute travel time, the availability of primary care resources in contiguous areas, the extent of markers of high need such as high mortality rates or high poverty rates, and the percent of population over age 65 are considered in the designation process. In 15 Indiana counties, the entire county is designated as underserved, while in 32 other counties a collection of townships or census tracts are so designated.23
The Indiana State Department of Health has made serving the underserved a top priority. A network of Safety Net Clinics was established statewide to provide primary and preventive health care to Indiana’s underserved populations. The network consists of 59 state-funded community health clinics operated by 44 organizations.
There are 94 local health departments serving Indiana’s 92 counties. These local departments, which are funded by state, local, and federal funds, provide a variety of services, including some primary care services. However, most of their effort is directed towards promoting health and reducing the incidence of disease.
19 Table 2: Annual Estimates of the Population by Sex and Age for Indiana: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005 (SC-EST2005-02-18).
20 Income, Earnings, and Poverty Data From the 2005 American Community Survey (ACS-02), Table 6.
21 U.S. Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey, Selected Economic Characteristics As of February 2006.
22 U.S Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey, Selected Economic Characteristics As of February 2006.
23 MUA/MUP data from: http://www.in.gov/isdh/publications/llo/shortages/pdf/MUA_details_table5-06.pdf.