Pneumococcal Disease 2004
*Rate per 100,000 population based on the U.S. Census Bureau’s population data as of July 1, 2004
Pneumococcal disease is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae and results in widespread illness and death in the United States. The major clinical syndromes of pneumococcal disease include pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. Pneumococcal bacteria, of which there are over 90 serotypes, are common inhabitants of the respiratory tract.
Surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease has been ongoing in Indiana since the summer of 1998. Figure 1 shows the number of reported cases per year for 2000-2004. In 2004, 575 cases of pneumococcal disease were reported in Indiana, for a case rate of 9.22 per 100,000 population. Disease incidence was greatest during the winter and early spring months (Figure 2). Incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease varies considerably with age. In 2004, the age-specific rates were highest in adults aged 80 years and older (47.26), followed by infants less than 1 year of age (25.55) (Figure 3). In 2004, the incidence rate among the black population (11.67) was more than that of the white population (7.47) as can be seen in Table 1. The difference in rates between genders was not significant.
In 2004, 74 counties reported at least 1 case of invasive pneumococcal disease, with 29 counties reporting 5 or more cases. The incidence rates were highest among the following counties reporting five or more cases: Grant (32.1), Clay (25.7), and Gibson (24.0). Cases are widely distributed geographically as can be seen in Figure 4. Only counties reporting five or more cases are represented.
Drug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (DRSP)
Antibiotic resistance has become an emerging world, national, and state problem in the treatment of pneumococcal disease. In the U.S., DRSP has increased substantially over the past 15 years; DRSP varies regionally and has been reported to be over 30 percent in some areas of the U.S.
Sensitivity data can be compared from year to year to determine if the organism is becoming more or less resistant to various antibiotics. Table 2 shows selected antibiotics and rates of resistance reported for 2000-2004. As can be seen in Table 2, the percent of isolates that are resistant have remained stable for the five-year period.
|No. Tested||% Res||No. Tested||% Res||No. Tested||% Res||No. Tested||% Res||No. Tested||% Res|
You can learn more about pneumococcal infections by visiting the following websites: