2005 - Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B

Table 1. Hepatitis B Cases by Race and Sex, Indiana, 2005

  2005 2001-2005
Cases Rate* Cases
Total 57 0.91 370
Race
   White 34 0.61 247
   Black 13 2.34 74
   Other 1 0.61 7
   Not Reported 9 - 42
Sex
   Male 41 1.33 262
   Female 16 0.50 108
   Not Reported 0 - 0

*Rate per 100,000 population based on the U.S. Census Bureau’s   population data as of July 1, 2005

Hepatitis B is a serious viral disease of the liver transmitted by direct contact, including sexual contact, with blood or body fluids that contain the virus. Transmission can also occur from an infected mother to her infant in utero or at birth. The hepatitis B incidence rate for Indiana in 2005 was 0.91 acute cases per 100,000 population.

A comprehensive strategy was developed and implemented in the 1990s to eliminate hepatitis B in the United States. The strategy includes the following: screening all pregnant women for hepatitis B infection with the provision of postexposure prophylaxis to infants born to infected women; routine vaccination of all infants and children <19 years; and targeted vaccination of individuals at increased risk of hepatitis B including health care workers, dialysis patients, household contacts and sex partners of persons with chronic hepatitis B infection, recipients of certain blood products, persons with a recent history of having multiple sex partners or a sexually transmitted disease, men who have sex with men, and injecting drug users.

In 2005, there were 57 reported cases of acute hepatitis B in Indiana: 79 percent exhibited jaundice and 30 percent were hospitalized. No cases resulted in death.

Figure 1 shows reported cases of hepatitis B for the five-year period 2001-2005. In 2005, there was a 29 percent decrease in reported cases of acute hepatitis B compared to 2004 (80). Cases occurred throughout the year in 2005 (Figure 2).

Cases of acute hepatitis B infection varied with age. Figure 3 shows incidence rates of acute hepatitis B cases per 100,000 population by age group. Nationally, higher rates of hepatitis B disease continue among adults, particularly males 25-38 years of age and persons with identified risk factors (i.e., injection drug users, men who have sex with men, and persons with multiple sex partners).

In 2005, 53 persons with acute hepatitis B were interviewed about risk factors for contracting the disease. Not all of those interviewed responded to each question asked. Table 2 highlights identified risk factors for 2005 Indiana cases. Nationally, the proportion of heterosexuals reporting multiple sex partners and self-identified men who have sex with men has increased in the past decade.

In 2005, 20 Indiana counties reported cases of acute hepatitis B. The incidence rates were highest among the following counties reporting five or more cases: St. Joseph (3.4), Porter (3.2), and Marion (1.4) (Figure 4).

Indiana law requires the reporting of both acute and chronic hepatitis B infections during pregnancy and perinatally exposed infants. However, data for 2005 are not currently available.

You can learn more about hepatitis B by visiting the following Web site:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/b/index.htm